Data science is a vast field encompassing many different algorithms. The most common algorithms in data science projects are the ones used for Machine Learning tasks.
Machine Learning algorithms are widely used in data science projects. When creating a data science project, the key is to use algorithms best suited to your needs. ML technologies make it possible to develop more predictive algorithms and have them work efficiently. Doing this can help save time and money on projects that require more computing power.
This article presents a list of common ML algorithms used in the industry that can help you improve your understanding of the data science process.
Major Categories of Machine Learning Algorithms (ML)
In data science, machine learning (ML) algorithms train a model to make predictions. The algorithm used is critical to the success of your project and can often determine its outcome.
Below are the significant types of ML algorithms:
 Classification: The problem of identifying a category from a set of examples. The goal of classification is to divide the data into groups or ‘classes’ and then assign each instance to one of those classes.
 Regression: The problem of predicting a value for a dependent variable based on one or more independent variables. Regression aims to find the bestfit line through the points in the scatterplot matrix, representing the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
 Clustering: This algorithm groups data points into similar clusters, such as having identical values for their attributes or being close together in space/time. Clustering allows us to group similar objects together and then use this grouping information to perform further analysis (either on individual objects or across all objects). This can be useful when we want to find patterns within our dataset that may take time to make apparent by looking at individual examples (e.g., if five people have a particular characteristic, it might be helpful to look at all five people together before categorizing them).
Common ML algorithms
In order to create a practical machine learning project, you need to use suitable algorithms. Although there are many types of machine learning algorithms out there, not all of them can be used in specific scenarios.
The following list is not comprehensive but highlights some of the most popular ML algorithms.

Linear Regression
Linear regression is a type of regression algorithm that takes a set of input variables and their corresponding predicted values, as well as a set of coefficients, and outputs the relationship between those variables and the predicted values. The coefficients can be thought of as weights applied to each parameter when generating predictions.

Logistic Regression
Logistic regression is a type in which multiple predictor variables can be numeric values or categorical (categorical variables can also be numeric). The model predicts the likelihood that an outcome variable will occur based on these predictors using a logistic function.
In other words, Logistic regression takes a set of input variables and their corresponding predicted values and a set of coefficients. It outputs the relationship between those variables and the predicted values. The coefficients can be thought of as weights applied to each parameter when generating predictions.

Naive Bayesian
Naive Bayes is another common algorithm used in data science projects. Naive Bayes is a probabilistic classifier that uses Bayes’ theorem to calculate a conditional probability from features or features given classes. The probability score represents how likely an observation falls into each category based on its characteristics.
It does this by multiplying the likelihood ratio for each feature, finding its average, and dividing by its standard deviation. This gives you a value between 0 and 1 that represents how likely it is, for instance, to have this feature when compared with some other cases with similar features.

Decision Tree
The decision tree is one of the most common algorithms used in data science projects. A decision tree indicates that the data is grouped in the shape of a tree structure.
A decision tree is a type of classification algorithm that uses a series of decisions to determine whether an object belongs to one of two or more categories. The findings are made based on a comparison between the properties of the objects and those properties that are associated with each category.

Support Vector Machine (SVM) Algorithms
An SVM is a supervised learning algorithm mainly used to solve classificationbased problems. We feed the SVM model with annotated training data to categorize new text.
While using the SVM alogorithm, you can classify data by plotting the raw data as dots in an ndimensional space (where n is the number of features you have). Thus, it is simple to categorize the data because each feature’s value is linked to a specific coordinate. The data can be divided into groups and plotted on a graph using lines referred to as classifiers.
When we only have a few samples and speed is a priority, SVM is a suitable option. For this reason, it is applied while working with a dataset of text classification examples that contains a few thousand tags.
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Random Forest Algorithms
Data scientists utilize random forest, a machine learning technique, to handle classification and regression issues. It uses ensemble learning, a method for solving complicated problems by combining many classifiers. Many different decision trees make up a random forest algorithm.

KMeans Clustering
It is an unsupervised method that utilizes raw datasets. It is employed to classify entities into k different groups based on attributes. It aims to group things into k clusters. The key concept is to define k centres, one for each cluster. The position of this centred k should be chosen to get the most accurate results. To obtain relevant findings, this centred k is important.
Kmeans clustering process:
 First, Kmeans clustering selects each cluster’s k number of points (centroids).
 Then, every data point forms a cluster with its nearest centroids (K clusters).
 It now generates new centroids based on the cluster members already present.
 The closest distance for every data point is calculated using these new centroids. This method is repeated until the centroids do not change.

Dimensionality Reduction
Dimensionality Reduction is the process of reducing the dimension of the data model.
In other words, Techniques for reducing the number of input variables in a dataset are referred to as dimensionality reduction. The curse of dimensionality, more commonly known, describes how adding more input features makes it harder to model a predictive modelling problem. It is regarded as the best among the top ML algorithms for data science projects in 2023.

KNN Algorithms
Knearest neighbours (KNN) – This algorithm finds the closest point in feature space to an observation.
Problems involving regression and classification can both be solved using this method. The solution to categorization issues appears more frequently applied within the Data Science business. It is a simple algorithm that classifies new cases by obtaining a majority vote from its k neighbours and then saves all of the existing examples. The example is then put into the class with which it shares the most characteristics. This measurement is carried out via a distance function.
We can use the Euclidean distance formula to find similar input from k training data. As you
solve a regression problem; your predictions will be based on the mean and median.

Gradient Boosting
The preferred machine learning techniques for training on tabular data are gradientboosting machines like XGBoost, LightGBM, and CatBoost. Due to its transparency, ease of tree charting, and lack of intrinsic categorical features encoding, XGBoost is simpler to use.
They are used when a massive amount of data needs to be handled with high prediction accuracy.
Boosting is a collaborative learning approach that improves robustness by combining the predictive capability of numerous base estimators.
Conclusion
If you’re looking to get involved in data science and machine learning projects, it’s essential to understand the standard ML techniques that professionals use. This should dramatically help you increase your understanding of how machine learning works. Whether you are working as a data scientist or doing some hobby project, these machine learning algorithms are the most applicable and frequently used when faced with practical problems.
However, more algorithms are used in Machine Learning projects than the ones described above. If you are looking for other fantastic techniques with many algorithms, check out the IBMaccredited machine learning course in Chennai, and learn to master them.